Monday, October 27, 2008

Friday, October 24, 2008

Manganese

http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts151.html

Thursday, October 23, 2008

ENERGY BIOSCIENCES INSTITUTE(EBI)

ENERGY BIOSCIENCES INSTITUTE(EBI)


http://www.energybiosciencesinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_content
&task=viewiid=51&Itemid=90

http://www.energybiosciencesinstitute.org/index.php
option=com_content&task=view&id=25&Itemid=38

http://www.ciw.edu/somerville_keynote

http://www.ciw.edu/employment

Information Campaign-read with a grain of cognizance

find out more on China Biotechnology

http://www.biotechnologyftcua.com

more tutorials

http://biotechnologyftcua.blogspot.com

http://biotechnologyftcua1.blogspot.com

I sent my American Chemical Society application upon invitation with subscription to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Also, I say Dr. Robert Hazen DVD lectures on Joy of Science are quite interesting. I started on Astronomy by Dr. Filippenko.

There is a Space Odyssey University and International Space University.

http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en-us&q=space+odyssey+university&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

electronicproducts@elecp-media.com

http://www.nj.com/south/index.ssf/2008/10/nrc_investigating_no_danger_in.html

No China Syndrome

From: "Norwich University"
Date: October 23, 2008 11:51:33 AM EDT
To: "Cua , Florence"
Subject: Masters in Public Admin for Public Service Professionals
Reply-To: mpa@grad.norwich.edu.dm-4.com


New Jersey Center for Biomaterials - 5 visits - 8:07am
Academic-based developer of innovative biomaterials for delivery of drugs, and tissue repair, and for future commercialization.
www.njbiomaterials.org/ - 6k - Cached - Similar pages
News & Events
CeMBR
Industry
Education
Resbio
More

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBouWixqErw&eurl=http://www.njbiomaterials.org/web/index.php

Brookhaven National Laboratory Center for Functional Nanomaterials(BNL CFN)

http://www.bnl.gov/cfn/jobs/

Nanomedicine

The National Space Society is asking whether the shuttles would continue or be discontinued and the spaceships launched. Ad Stra Magazine

The Planetary Society details where the planetariums are.

http://www.planetary.org/

James Webb Space Telescope, http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/

http://ftcuasciencelessons.blogspot.com

till

http://ftcuasciencelessons11.blogspot.com

http://hazen.ciw.edu/

http://paaseuniversity.blogspot.com

http://www.freewebs.com/ftcuatableofelements/drflorencetcua.htm

http://www.freewebs.com/jwolfert/

Begin forwarded message:

From: "GPN Weekly e-News"
Date: October 23, 2008 10:35:21 AM EDT
To: ftcua8@comcast.net
Subject: Snow tractors, fire trucks headed to Milwaukee airport
Reply-To: GovPro@email.govpro.com

View this email as a Web page Please add GPRO_GPN e-News_ to your Safe Sender list.

October 23, 2008
This eNewsletter is a roundup of government-related news targeted to local, state and federal government. Topics include major contracts awarded by local, state and federal government agencies; product trends and innovations; government best practices and resources; and political and regulatory developments affecting government purchasing activities. Go to www.govpro.com to view the latest products, daily news and government suppliers.

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Wisconsin's largest airport orders snow removal, emergency equipment from Oshkosh
Kempf named acting deputy commissioner of GSA's Federal Acquisition Service
Let's be careful out there: More danger in the government workplace
LTAPs help highway workers get up to speed on training

News
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Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Catalytic Converter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalytic_converter

Dr. William Uhland-Covidien

http://www.e835.to.infn.it/people/gollwitz/thesis/1p1_appendix_b.ps

Appendix B
Radiation Damage and Curing
The transparency of lead􏰀glass decreases as it is irradiated􏰁 Radiation damage
of lead􏰀glass leads to a yel lowing or darkening of the lead􏰀glass􏰁 The coloring of the
lead􏰀glass is caused by creation of color centers or by the development and growth
of absorption bands􏰁 The absorption bands decrease the amount of 􏰂
Cerenkov light which reaches the photomultiplier tube and􏰃 therefore􏰃 decrease the signal􏰁
A spectrophotometer which measures the transmittance or absorption of ma􏰀
terials has been used to monitor radiation damage􏰁 Several F􏰄 lead􏰀glass sample
pieces􏰃 􏰞 􏰅􏰆 􏰟 􏰄 􏰟 􏰄 cm􏰍 with only the two small end faces parallel and polished􏰃 have
been used to monitor the radiation damage􏰇exposure of the central calorimeter􏰁 The
calorimeter􏰈s lead􏰀glass blocks have not been used directly since they are contained
within the wedge shells and are inaccessible􏰁 Using the smaller lead􏰀glass sample
pieces􏰃 the spectrophotometer is used in its normal con􏰉guration 􏰊not as described
in Appendix A􏰋􏰁 In addition to the lead􏰀glass samples placed about the calorimeter
during the running􏰃 two pieces have been placed near the debuncher ring􏰈s injection
kicker magnet for a short period of time􏰁
􏰄􏰌􏰍
􏰄􏰌􏰎
Placement Azimuthal Distance
Comment Angle 􏰊cm􏰋
Upstream 􏰏x􏰀axis 􏰌
􏰡
􏰐􏰆
Upstream 􏰏y􏰀axis 􏰑􏰆
􏰡
􏰒􏰌
Upstream 􏰓x􏰀axis 􏰅􏰒􏰌
􏰡
􏰒􏰌
Upstream 􏰓y􏰀axis 􏰄􏰒􏰆
􏰡
􏰅􏰍􏰆
Downstream 􏰏x􏰀axis 􏰍􏰎􏰌
􏰡
􏰅􏰄􏰆
Downstream 􏰏y􏰀axis 􏰔􏰌
􏰡
􏰅􏰍􏰌
Downstream 􏰓x􏰀axis 􏰅􏰑􏰌
􏰡
􏰅􏰆􏰌
Downstream 􏰓y􏰀axis 􏰄􏰐􏰌
􏰡
􏰅􏰍􏰆
Table B􏰁􏰅􏰕 The azimuthal angles and radial distance from beam pipe of the lead􏰀glass
samples about the calorimeter􏰁
B􏰁􏰅 Placement of Lead􏰀glass Samples
The lead􏰀glass samples have been present constantly about the central calorime􏰀
ter whenever there has been beam in the 􏰖
p source􏰁 Twenty􏰀four samples have been
separated into sets of three and placed at eight locations about the calorimeter􏰁 Each
lead􏰀glass sample is wrapped individually in black paper􏰁 The locations have been
essentially along the experiment􏰈s positive and negative x and y axes 􏰊the z􏰀axis is
along the 􏰖
p direction and the y􏰀axis is pointing upward􏰋 upstream and downstream
of the calorimeter􏰁 Table B􏰁􏰅 shows the approximate azimuthal angles and the radial
distance from the beam pipe for the eight sets􏰁 The approximate polar angles at the
upstream end near the interaction point are 􏰔􏰆
􏰡
for the sets along the x􏰀axis and
between 􏰒􏰄
􏰡
and 􏰒􏰌
􏰡
for the sets along the y􏰀axis􏰁 The downstream samples have
been connected to the central calorimeter cable support apparatus located 􏰄􏰐􏰌 cm
downstream of the interaction point􏰁
􏰄􏰌􏰌
Two samples were placed near the debuncher ring􏰈s injection magnet􏰃 with no
shielding􏰃 during 􏰖
p source studies conducted in December 􏰅􏰑􏰑􏰆􏰁 In between the de􏰀
buncher and accumulator rings near the E􏰒􏰐􏰆 experimental area􏰃 concrete blocks
provide shielding for the detector􏰁 The placement of the shielding intercepts particles
coming from the 􏰖
p target area via the transport line and shields against radiation
produced at the nearby kicker magnets􏰁 Previous to the start of the experiment􏰃
these were the expected radiation sources for E􏰒􏰐􏰆􏰁
B􏰁􏰄 Radiation Exposure
Several radiation monitors have also been placed about the calorimeter to try
to measure the radiation dosage􏰁 The radiation monitors vary in type but all are
connected to a visual readout system in the E􏰒􏰐􏰆 counting room􏰁 Only two of the
radiation monitors have been continually attached to the central calorimeter􏰁 The
􏰖
p source has operated for three di􏰗erent periods over two years with the central
calorimeter present􏰘 the radiation dosages received by the calorimeter according to the
two monitors are shown in table B􏰁􏰄􏰁 The two 􏰉xed target time periods had di􏰗erent
shielding arrangements and di􏰗erent injection line collimator settings􏰘 additionally􏰃
the injection line tuning improved with time􏰁 During the 􏰖
p source studies􏰃 the E􏰒􏰐􏰆
detector was removed from the beam line and moved as far away as possible within
the experimental area from the debuncher and accumulator beam lines􏰃 however􏰃 the
shielding was also removed and the collimators were opened wide􏰁 During data taking􏰃
􏰄􏰌􏰐
Time Period Dosage 􏰊rad􏰋
Fixed target run 􏰅􏰑􏰑􏰆 􏰊May 􏰓 September􏰋 􏰞 􏰒􏰆 rad
Studies of the 􏰖
p source 􏰊December 􏰅􏰑􏰑􏰆􏰋 􏰞 􏰍􏰆 rad
Fixed target run 􏰅􏰑􏰑􏰅 􏰊June 􏰓 January􏰋 􏰞 􏰔􏰆 rad
Table B􏰁􏰄􏰕 The radiation dosages􏰃 according to monitors􏰃 that the central calorimeter
received in the 􏰖
p source􏰁
when the gas jet is operating􏰃 the radiation monitors showed small radiation doses as
compared to doses during stacking 􏰊the collection of 􏰖
p􏰈s􏰋􏰁
A separate radiation monitor was placed near the kicker magnet when the two
samples were in place during the December 􏰅􏰑􏰑􏰆 􏰖
p source studies􏰁 This monitor􏰃 a
propane gas ion chamber􏰃 was operated in what is called neutron mode􏰃 which is a
factor of ten more sensitive to charged particles than neutral particles􏰘 the neutron
mode assumes that the radiation does not consist of charged particles􏰁 The nature
of the radiation is unknown and therefore the dosage determined from the monitor
may be an over estimate􏰁 The monitor measured a dosage of 􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰆 rad before failing􏰁
Estimating from other radiation monitors in the area􏰃 the two samples received an
additional 􏰅􏰆􏰆􏰆 to 􏰄􏰆􏰆􏰆 rad􏰁
B􏰁􏰍 Radiation Damage Analysis
The transmission spectra of the lead􏰀glass samples were made and recorded by
an HP􏰔􏰎􏰌􏰅A spectrophotometer before exposing them to radiation􏰁 One spectrum
is shown in 􏰉gure B􏰁􏰅 along with a spectrum from one of the 􏰌􏰆 cm long lead􏰀glass
􏰄􏰌􏰒
Figure B􏰁􏰅􏰕 A lead􏰀glass sample􏰈s transmission spectrum and a 􏰌􏰆 cm long lead􏰀glass
block spectrum􏰁
blocks􏰁 The twenty􏰀four lead􏰀glass samples􏰈 transmittances have been re􏰀measured
after each time period as described in table B􏰁􏰄􏰁 None of the transmission spectra
show any change􏰃 outside of the spectrophotometer􏰈s intrinsic error􏰃 from the original
spectrum for the lead􏰀glass samples that were located about the central calorime􏰀
ter􏰁 The spectrophotometer􏰈s transmission measurement error for a 􏰄 nm wavelength
band interval is 􏰄􏰙􏰁 A 􏰄􏰙 change in the transmittance of a small lead􏰀glass sample
􏰄􏰌􏰔
Figure B􏰁􏰄􏰕 The transmission spectra of one of the lead􏰀glass samples before and after
being placed near the debuncher ring􏰈s kicker magnet showing the a􏰗ect of radiation
damage􏰁
corresponds to 􏰅􏰆􏰙 change in the transmittance of a lead􏰀glass block􏰁 The absorp􏰀
tion of the 􏰚ashlamp light would correspondingly change the 􏰚ashlamp response by
􏰄􏰆􏰙 since the light has to travel the block length twice􏰁 As stated in section 􏰎􏰁􏰎􏰁􏰅􏰃
there has been no measureble decrease of the 􏰚ashlamp response attributed to radia􏰀
tion damage􏰁 The lead􏰀glass samples about the calorimeter agree with the 􏰚ashlamp
responses􏰁
􏰄􏰌􏰑
However􏰃 the two samples which were exposed to the larger radiation dose have
shown radiation damage􏰁 Figure B􏰁􏰄 shows the radiation damage to the transmission
spectrum􏰘 the original transmission spectrum is shown for comparison􏰁 The radia􏰀
tion damage a􏰗ects the ultraviolet wavelengths more than the rest of the spectrum􏰁
Visually􏰃 the samples were darker and slightly brown􏰁
The radiation dose can also be estimated another way􏰁 Kirsebom and Sollie 􏰛􏰔􏰎􏰜
have parameterized the transmission properties of F􏰄 lead􏰀glass for absorbed doses􏰃
D􏰃 up to 􏰌􏰆􏰆􏰆 rad􏰁 The radiational absorption is de􏰉ned
a􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰋 􏰝 􏰅 􏰠 T 􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰘 x 􏰝 􏰅cm􏰋
To 􏰊􏰢􏰋 􏰘 􏰊B􏰁􏰅􏰋
where To 􏰊􏰢􏰋 is the non􏰀irradiated transmittance T 􏰊􏰢􏰘 D 􏰝 􏰆 rad􏰘 x 􏰝 􏰅 cm􏰋􏰁 The
parameterization found by Kirsebom and Sollie is
a􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰋 􏰝 􏰅 􏰠 e
􏰠􏰖
􏰊􏰢􏰋D
􏰘 􏰊B􏰁􏰄􏰋
where 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋 is experimentally determined􏰁 The transmittance through x cm of lead􏰀
glass is
T 􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰘 x􏰋 􏰝 􏰛T 􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰘 x 􏰝 􏰅cm􏰋􏰜x 􏰊B􏰁􏰍􏰋
and substituting in appropriately the transmittance is
T 􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰘 x􏰋 􏰝
h
To􏰊􏰢􏰋e
􏰠􏰖
􏰊􏰢􏰋D
i
x
􏰕 􏰊B􏰁􏰎􏰋
Several values of 􏰖 for several representative wavelengths have been determined
by Kirsebom and Sollie􏰁 Using these values for 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋 and the transmission spectra
􏰄􏰐􏰆
Wavelength 􏰖 Calculated Dose 􏰊rad􏰋
􏰊nm􏰋 􏰊􏰅􏰆
􏰠
􏰐
􏰋 Sample 􏰅 Sample 􏰄
􏰍􏰌􏰆 􏰎􏰆􏰁􏰒 􏰎􏰍􏰎 􏰎􏰑􏰆
􏰎􏰆􏰆 􏰍􏰅􏰁􏰔 􏰐􏰑􏰄 􏰐􏰄􏰄
􏰎􏰌􏰆 􏰄􏰅􏰁􏰐 􏰒􏰔􏰄 􏰐􏰐􏰆
􏰌􏰆􏰆 􏰅􏰍􏰁􏰍 􏰔􏰍􏰅 􏰐􏰒􏰆
􏰐􏰆􏰆 􏰌􏰁􏰅 􏰐􏰌􏰄 􏰌􏰎􏰎
Table B􏰁􏰍􏰕 The calculated radiation dose for the two lead􏰀glass samples using 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋
values determined by Kiresbom and Sollie 􏰛􏰔􏰎􏰜􏰁
before and after irradiation􏰃 a calculated radiation dose can be determined􏰕
D 􏰝 􏰅
􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋x ln 􏰣
Tx􏰊􏰢􏰋
T 􏰊􏰢􏰘 D􏰘 x􏰋 􏰤 􏰘 􏰊B􏰁􏰌􏰋
where Tx 􏰝 􏰛To􏰜
x
􏰘 the measured spectra are always for the transmittance through
x cm of lead􏰀glass􏰁 Table B􏰁􏰍 shows the calculated doses at the various wavelengths
for the two lead􏰀glass samples􏰘 the 􏰖 parameter is also shown􏰁 The radiation dosage
appears to be between 􏰐􏰆􏰆 and 􏰒􏰆􏰆 rad and disagrees with the radiation monitor
determination􏰁 Several explanations are possible for the discrepancy of a factor of 􏰄
􏰊the radiation monitor result before failure􏰋 to 􏰌 􏰊the largest extrapolated dosage􏰋􏰁 A
basic reason could be that the F􏰄 lead􏰀glasses are not the same􏰘 however􏰃 one would
not expect such a large di􏰗erence􏰁 Another possible explanation is that the radiation
monitors have overestimated the dosage since the nature of the radiation is unknown􏰁
A last possible explanation is that instant bleaching􏰃 or curing􏰃 of the the lead􏰀glass
occurs when exposed to light􏰁 The lead􏰀glass samples were exposed to arti􏰉cial lights
while being unwrapped and placed in the spectrophotometer􏰈s sample compartment
before a transmission spectrum was taken􏰁 The most reasonable explanation is that
the radiation monitors have overestimated the radiation dosage􏰁
􏰄􏰐􏰅
􏰖 􏰊􏰅􏰆
􏰠
􏰐
􏰋
􏰢 Sample 􏰅 Sample 􏰄
􏰊nm􏰋 􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰆 rad 􏰄􏰆􏰆􏰆 rad 􏰍􏰆􏰆􏰆 rad 􏰅􏰄􏰆􏰆 rad 􏰄􏰆􏰆􏰆 rad 􏰍􏰆􏰆􏰆 rad
􏰍􏰌􏰆 􏰅􏰐􏰁􏰅 􏰑􏰁􏰐􏰌 􏰐􏰁􏰎􏰄 􏰅􏰐􏰁􏰐 􏰑􏰁􏰑􏰐 􏰐􏰁􏰐􏰎
􏰎􏰆􏰆 􏰅􏰔􏰁􏰍 􏰅􏰅􏰁􏰆 􏰒􏰁􏰍􏰎 􏰅􏰐􏰁􏰍 􏰑􏰁􏰒􏰐 􏰐􏰁􏰌􏰄
􏰎􏰌􏰆 􏰅􏰎􏰁􏰅 􏰔􏰁􏰎􏰌 􏰌􏰁􏰐􏰄 􏰅􏰅􏰁􏰑 􏰒􏰁􏰅􏰄 􏰎􏰁􏰒􏰌
􏰌􏰆􏰆 􏰑􏰁􏰅􏰐 􏰌􏰁􏰌􏰆 􏰍􏰁􏰐􏰒 􏰒􏰁􏰎􏰄 􏰎􏰁􏰎􏰐 􏰄􏰁􏰑􏰒
􏰐􏰆􏰆 􏰄􏰁􏰒􏰐 􏰅􏰁􏰐􏰐 􏰅􏰁􏰅􏰅 􏰄􏰁􏰍􏰅 􏰅􏰁􏰍􏰔 􏰆􏰁􏰑􏰄
Table B􏰁􏰎􏰕 The calculated 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋 values for three radiation doses􏰁
On the other hand􏰃 assuming that the radiation monitor results are correct􏰃 the
two sets of spectra can be used to determine 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋􏰁 Three values of radiation dose
have been used to determine 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋 and are presented in table B􏰁􏰎􏰁 The determined
􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋 values are about a factor of three to four di􏰗erent than the values determined
by Kirsebom and Sollie 􏰊table B􏰁􏰍􏰋􏰁 One does not expect the lead􏰀glasses to be
that di􏰗erent􏰘 the dosage determined from the radiation monitors is probably an
overestimate􏰁
Assuming that 􏰖􏰊􏰢􏰋 values of Kirsebom and Sollie are correct􏰃 the expected
damage to the lead􏰀glass samples on the calorimeter can be calculated􏰁 A 􏰍􏰙 to
􏰌􏰙 change of the transmittances for the wavelengths between 􏰍􏰌􏰆 nm and 􏰎􏰄􏰆 nm
is expected after a 􏰅􏰆􏰆 rad dose􏰁 The spectrophotometer is capable of showing this
change in transmittance􏰁 A di􏰗erence has not been seen and possible explanations􏰃
as indicated above􏰃 are either 􏰊i􏰋 the radiation monitor has overestimated the dose or
􏰊ii􏰋 instant bleaching􏰁
􏰄􏰐􏰄
Cycle Exposure Time 􏰊min􏰋
Number Period Cumulative
􏰅 􏰅􏰌 􏰅􏰌
􏰄 􏰅􏰌 􏰍􏰆
􏰍 􏰍􏰆 􏰐􏰆
􏰎 􏰐􏰆 􏰅􏰄􏰆
􏰌 􏰅􏰔􏰆 􏰍􏰆􏰆
􏰐 􏰅􏰔􏰆 􏰎􏰔􏰆
􏰒 􏰅􏰔􏰆 􏰐􏰐􏰆
􏰔 􏰍􏰐􏰆 􏰅􏰆􏰄􏰆
􏰑 􏰍􏰐􏰆 􏰅􏰍􏰔􏰆
Table B􏰁􏰌􏰕 The exposure time periods and cumulative time that the two lead􏰀glass
samples were exposed to sunlight􏰁
B􏰁􏰎 Curing
Physics practice has been to expose irradiated lead􏰀glass to sunlight for curing􏰁
The estimated recovery time from radiation damage for lead􏰀glass is estimated to be
􏰌􏰆 years 􏰛􏰔􏰌􏰜 􏰊from measurements over a period of 􏰅􏰁􏰌 years of lead􏰀glass not exposed
to light􏰋􏰁 During May 􏰅􏰑􏰑􏰅􏰃 the two most irradiated lead􏰀glass samples were exposed
to sunlight for di􏰗erent time periods􏰁 Two non􏰀irradiated lead􏰀glass samples were
also exposed to the sunlight as controls􏰁 Table B􏰁􏰌 shows the exposure time periods
and cumulative times􏰘 the uncertainty of the time of exposure is a few minutes􏰁 The
exposure periods were scattered over a few weeks whenever there was not a threat of
rain􏰘 some of the exposure periods were while the sky was overcast􏰁
The never􏰀irradiated lead􏰀glass samples spectra showed no changes and contin􏰀
ually showed that the reproducibility of the spectrophotometer results􏰁 Figure B􏰁􏰍
shows the radiation damaged transmission spectrum and the spectra after seven of the
􏰄􏰐􏰍
Figure B􏰁􏰍􏰕 The transmission spectra after di􏰗erent exposure periods 􏰊di􏰗erent cu􏰀
mulative times􏰋 as the lead􏰀glass sample cures􏰁 The 􏰅􏰅 and 􏰄􏰍 hour cumulative time
spectra are nearly the same􏰃 and the symbols are not resolved􏰁
curing periods for one of the lead􏰀glass samples􏰁 The spectra after 􏰅􏰅 and 􏰄􏰍 hours
of cumulative exposure to sunlight are nearly the same􏰁 The spectra of 􏰉gure B􏰁􏰍
have been normalized by the transmission spectrum taken before radiation exposure􏰁
These normalized spectra􏰃 as shown in 􏰉gure B􏰁􏰎􏰃 show the loss of transmittance
due to the radiation damage and the subsequent recovery due to exposure to sun􏰀
light􏰁 Complete recovery would be a value of 􏰅􏰁􏰆 corresponding to no di􏰗erence from
􏰄􏰐􏰎
Figure B􏰁􏰎􏰕 The loss of transmittance due to the radiation damage and the recovery
due to exposure to sunlight􏰁 The transmission spectra after di􏰗erent exposure periods
􏰊di􏰗erent cumulative times􏰋 as the lead􏰀glass sample cures􏰃 normalized by the non􏰀
irradiated spectrum􏰁 The 􏰅􏰅 and 􏰄􏰍 hour cumulative time spectra are nearly the
same􏰃 and the symbols are not resolved􏰁
􏰄􏰐􏰌
Figure B􏰁􏰌􏰕 The transmission spectra of a lead􏰀glass sample before irradiation􏰃 radi􏰀
ation damaged and after sunlight exposure 􏰊cured􏰋􏰁
the non􏰀irradiated transmission spectrum􏰁 After 􏰄􏰍 hours of exposure to sunlight􏰃
the lead􏰀glass sample􏰈s transmittances have not shown any more recovery􏰁 The non􏰀
irradiated􏰃 radiation damaged and cured transmission spectra are shown in 􏰉gure B􏰁􏰌􏰁
The sunlight curing does not cause a complete recovery of the transmittance􏰁
The 􏰉rst hour of exposure to sunlight appears to have the greatest e􏰗ect􏰁
Figure B􏰁􏰐 shows the transmittance normalized by the non􏰀irradiated transmittance
􏰄􏰐􏰐
Figure B􏰁􏰐􏰕 The transmittance of several wavelengths while curing as a function of
cumulative sunlight exposure time􏰁
as a function of exposure time to sunlight for 􏰉ve wavelengths􏰁 The curing rate does
not appear to be a function of wavelength􏰁
􏰄􏰐􏰒
B􏰁􏰌 Discussion
The spectrophotometer has been used to monitor radiation damage to the cen􏰀
tral calorimeter􏰁 The lead􏰀glass samples placed about the central calorimeter have
not shown any degradation of the transmission spectrum􏰁
Two lead􏰀glass samples were irradiated about a factor of 􏰅􏰆 more than the lead􏰀
glass samples about the calorimeter􏰁 The two lead􏰀glass samples showed radiation
damage􏰁 There appears to be a discrepancy between the radiation dose received when
using radiation damage parameters from a published experiment and the radiation
monitors􏰁 The radiation monitors may be overestimating the dose􏰃 due to uncertainty
about the type of radiation􏰃 by a factor of 􏰄 to 􏰌􏰁
The two most irradiated lead􏰀glass samples have been partially cured by ex􏰀
posure to sunlight􏰁 The sunlight curing does not cause the transmission spectrum
to recover fully􏰘 the recovery leads to transmittances 􏰑􏰎􏰙 of before􏰀irradiation at
ultraviolet wavelengths to nearly 􏰅􏰆􏰆􏰙 for the green part of the spectrum􏰁 A single
central calorimeter counter Monte Carlo simulation 􏰊Appendix C􏰋 shows that the
photoelectron signal should decrease by 􏰅􏰔􏰙 for a 􏰅 GeV incident gamma ray when
using Kirsebom and Sollie􏰈s parameterization of the radiation damage and assuming
a 􏰅􏰆􏰆 rad dose􏰁 Since no large decrease in signal output has been observed􏰃 it is
probable that the radiation monitors associated with the central calorimeter have
overestimated the radiation dose􏰁

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

USGS

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY(USGS)

http://www.usgs.gov

recent earthquake, the past 7 days

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/quakes_big.php

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

DEVRY.edu, ThomasNet.com

http://www.devry.edu/locations/search_locations.jsp

http://www.thomasnet.com

Sunday, October 12, 2008

ReCellular, Dexter, MI and SIMS Recycling Solutions, Chicago

http://www.recellular.com/?ref=google&kw=recellular

http://www.sims-group.com/uk/solutions/weee.asp

http://www.sims-group.com/global/home/default-std.asp

Saturday, October 11, 2008

http://popularscreensavers.smileycentral.com/download/index.jhtml

http://popularscreensavers.smileycentral.com/download/index.jhtml

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

Science and Engineering of Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America Is Now in Its 6th Year!

The Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America (formerly POWER-GEN Renewable Energy & Fuels) has a proven track record as renewable energy’s leading event. It offers a worldwide audience who will hear papers, panel discussions and presentations during technical sessions related to technology, markets, business strategies and policy covering the wind, solar, biomass, hydro, geothermal, biofuels and hydrogen fuels sectors. There has never been a better time to be a part of the exciting, ever-growing world of renewable energy!

REenergize with new technologies, new companies, new strategies and new views!

Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo Highlights:
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9 highly technical conference tracks
More than 30 educational conference sessions
Pre-Conference workshops
Technical Tours
250 renewable energy exhibitors
New industry technology

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CONFERENCE INFORMATION
Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America's firm foundation is its highly technical conference program. Each year, our advisory committee chooses the hottest topics facing the industry and identifies the experts most qualified to present their findings. Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America’s conference program is the definitive source to provide you with information and insight on the current trends and strategies shaping the industry.

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EXHIBITION INFORMATION
The exhibit floor is filling up fast! Connect you with an estimated 5,000 renewable energy power professionals from the wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, ocean/tidal/wave, energy storage, hydrogen and fuel cell, bio-power and alternative fuel sectors. Professionals representing these innovative technologies come together each year at Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America for three days of networking, new business negotiation, and the exchange of important ideas and information impacting the renewable industry today. Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America 2009 connects you and your customers like never before. Click here to view exhibit floor plan

For sponsorship or exhibiting information, contact:

Dick Rauner
+1-918-832-9249
dickr@pennwell.com Tracy Thompson
+1-918-832-9390
tthompson@pennwell.com

WORLD'S #1 RENEWABLE ENERGY NETWORK!
Grow your business with the largest, most trusted renewable energy network in the world. Get quick access to news and information, participate in trade show events, understand global markets and discover expert resources for technology, finance and policy.

News - Events - Information - Advertising - Jobs

Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America -
North America’s #1 Renewable Energy event is the industry’s most respected, premiere all renewables event – now in its 6th successful year. Formerly POWER-GEN Renewable Energy & Fuels.

RenewableEnergyWorld.com -
World's #1 Renewable Energy Website offers online daily and weekly e-news from around the world, plus Total Access Marketing, advertising, podcasts, webcasts and videocasts. Online portal for the complete Renewable Energy World information and business network. Formerly RenewableEnergyAccess.com

Renewable Energy World Magazine -
World's #1 magazine of international news and in-depth information for renewable energy professionals. Trusted for comprehensive coverage of technology and events from around the world.

Renewable Energy World Europe -
Europe’s #1 Renewable Energy Event had a highly successful second year and is co-located with Europe’s largest power event, POWER-GEN Europe.

For more information on the Renewable Energy World Network click on any of the names above or visit www.renewableenergyworld.com.

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